Deep learning detection system develops navigation skills of self-driving vehicles

30 November 2023

Image: Eschenzweig from Wikimedia Commons
Image: Eschenzweig from Wikimedia Commons

Using the IoT (Internet of Things) technology, the system improves the safety of autonomous vehicles by enhancing their detection abilities in challenging conditions.

Autonomous vehicles hold the promise of tackling traffic congestion, enhancing traffic flow through vehicle-to-vehicle communication, and revolutionizing the travel experience by offering comfortable and safe journeys. 

Additionally, integrating autonomous driving technology into electric vehicles could contribute to more eco-friendly transportation solutions.

A critical requirement for the success of autonomous vehicles is their ability to detect and navigate around obstacles, pedestrians, and other vehicles across diverse environments. 

Current autonomous vehicles employ smart sensors, such as LiDARs (Light Detection and Ranging) for a 3D view of the surroundings and depth information, RADaR (Radio Detection and Ranging) for detecting objects at night and cloudy weather, and a set of cameras for providing RGB images and a 360-degree view, collectively forming a comprehensive dataset known as point cloud.

However, these sensors often face challenges like reduced detection capabilities in adverse weather, on unstructured roads, or due to occlusion.

To overcome these shortcomings, an international team of researchers led by Professor Gwanggil Jeon from the Department of Embedded Systems Engineering at Incheon National University (INU), Korea, has recently developed a groundbreaking Internet-of-Things-enabled deep learning-based 3D object detection system. 

“Our proposed system operates in real time, enhancing the object detection capabilities of autonomous vehicles, making navigation through traffic smoother and safer,” explains Professor Jeon. 

The proposed innovative system is built on the YOLOv3 (You Only Look Once) deep learning object detection technique, which is the most active state-of-the-art technique available for 2D visual detection. 

The researchers first used this new model for 2D object detection and then modified the YOLOv3 technique to detect 3D objects. Using both point cloud data and RGB images as input, the system generates bounding boxes with confidence scores and labels for visible obstacles as output.

To assess the system’s performance, the team conducted experiments using the Lyft dataset, which consisted of road information captured from 20 autonomous vehicles travelling a predetermined route in Palo Alto, California, over four months. 

The results demonstrated that YOLOv3 exhibits high accuracy, surpassing other state-of-the-art architectures. Notably, the overall accuracy for 2D and 3D object detection was an impressive 96 percent and 97 percent, respectively.

Professor Jeon emphasises the potential impact of this enhanced detection capability: "By improving detection capabilities, this system could propel autonomous vehicles into the mainstream. 

“The introduction of autonomous vehicles has the potential to transform the transportation and logistics industry, offering economic benefits through reduced dependence on human drivers and the introduction of more efficient transportation methods."

Furthermore, the present work is expected to drive research and development in various technological fields such as sensors, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Going ahead, the team aims to explore additional deep learning algorithms for 3D object detection, recognizing the current focus on 2D image development.

In summary, this groundbreaking study could pave the way for the widespread adoption of autonomous vehicles and, in turn, a more environment-friendly and comfortable mode of transport.

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